Early historical period: An observation : (200BC - 300AD)
The period from 6th century B.C to 4th century B.C is a landmark in the evolution of Indian society and culture. The period saw the strengthening of the kinship or monarchy which, in fact was an important development in the sphere of polity. The period saw the emergence of sixteen Mahajanpada where we come across human settlements designated as village, market town, town and cities. Thus this period witnessed the beginning of the second urbanisation. It implies that people were following different professions besides food productions on a larger scale. The dichotomy between rural and urban areas began at this time. The concentrations of food producing groups by following agriculture and cattle herding led to the demarcation of rural area. This not only led to surplus productions but also to the growth of trade, industries, coinage and accountancy. All these changes were possible only because of massive use of Iron technology which led to the formation of new socio and agricultural economy.