Celiac disease, also known as "celiac sprue," is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestin, produced by the ingestion of dietary gluten products in susceptible people. This is a multifactorial disease that includes genetic and environmental factors. The environmental trigger is represented by gluten, while a genetic predisposition has been identified in the main area of ??the histocompatibility complex. Celiac disease is not a rare disorder, as previously thought, with a global prevalence of about 1%. Although it is clear that celiac disease (CD) develops in genetically predisposed subjects exposed to gluten, the degree of other environmental factors in the pathogenesis of the disease is an area of ??current research. Currently, the main therapeutic intervention for CD is a gluten-free diet; however, new non-food agents are under active research. An important milestone in the history of celiac disease was the identification of tissue transglutaminase as an autoantigen, confirming the autoimmune nature of this disorder. Currently, the only treatment for celiac disease is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet that improves the quality of life, improves symptoms and prevents the occurrence of refractory celiac disease, ulcerative nausea, as well as adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the small intestine.