Nutritional factors have been shown to be important in childhood survival, growth, health and development. Breastfeeding is the optimal method of infant feeding. Breast milk provides all the necessary nutrients growth factors and immunological components that healthy term infants need. In addition, breastfeeding is advantageous for a child’s development including its association with reduced incidences of infant mortality and morbidity. In addition, it is also shown to have benefits for neuro-developmental oral motor development outcome. Cognitive development in childhood is a complex process influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Cognitive development in children can show up in many ways, including impaired development. Cognitive impairment in children remains a health problem and describes a wide variety of impaired brain function related to the abilities of children. Protecting and investing in the physical, mental and emotional development of all children lays the foundation for a better future. Breastfeeding – available to almost every child – is key to that future. It offers one of the earliest opportunities to ensure that a child will not only survive, but thrive. Promoting breastfeeding is the simplest and wisest investment a nation can make.