Coronary artery disease in young adults (Clinical and angiographic characterization)
Mohamed Mahmoud, Mahmoud Ahmed A Elbaset, Osama Osman, Mahmoud Ahmed Mahmoud
Objectives: To assess the risk factors profile, clinical presentation and angiographic characteristics of coronary artery disease (CAD) in young patients Methods: A total of 50 patients aged 40 years or less, diagnosed as patients with CAD were included in this study. Demographic characteristics, risk factor profile, laboratory test results, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings and coronary angiography findings were assessed. Results: The mean patient age was 33.82±3.7 years. Men made up 80% of the study sample, and the proportion of rural area residents was 60%. The most prevalent conventional cardiovascular risk factor was smoking (62%), followed by dyslipidemia (46%), obesity (42%), positive family history of CAD (40%) and hypertension (24%). Among young patients the most common presentation (54%) was ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Angiographically normal coronary arteries were found in 34% of CAD patients. Single-vessel disease was identified in 64% of significant CAD patients. The most common location of significant atherosclerotic coronary lesions was the left anterior descending artery (62%) followed by the right coronary artery (25%). Conclusion: The population of young patients with CAD is predominantly male and rural. The rates of CAD risk factors in young adults are high and the most important risk factors are smoking, dyslipidaemia, obesity and positive family history of CAD. STEMI presentation and Single vessel disease were predominant in young patients. Further studies on CAD in young adults are required, particularly in larger patient populations.