Comparative study of the morphological features of paranasal sinuses in human and animal cadavers
Mohamad S Aly, Dr. Syed Aqeel Raza, Mohammad S Hossam El-Din, Safwat A Ragab, Ahmed M Kalefa, Fatimah Alzubidi
Introduction: Endoscopic sinus surgery is a surgical procedure performed to remove blockage of the paranasal sinuses. It has a wide range of indications from simple nasal polyp removal to Cerebrospinal fluid leak repair. It is relatively safe procedure in the hands of expert otolaryngologist, when performed precise knowledge of the anatomy of the paranasal sinuses and the internal nasal landmarks is essential. Therefore, we felt there is a need to conduct such study between human cadavers and some common animals, which are available easily so that it offers the advantage of similarity in anatomy of the paranasal sinuses which help us to study the morphological features of the sinuses, resemblance and differences between them and promotes easy learning by trainees before embarking on real patients. Methods: The study was carried out into two part: 1) Human part was carried on fifty skulls of Cadavers, formalin treated heads of adult humans. In each skull sagittal sections were done using sharp electric saw. The measurement of height, breadth and depth of each sinus was taken using compass and Vernier Calliper. 2) In animal part we chose sheep, rabbit and dog as 50 fresh dried skulls for each species were studied. Sagittal sections were done in every skull by using electric saw. The measurements and diameters of each sinus were done by the aid of compass and Vernier Calliper. The clinical work was carried out on fifty healthy individuals on complementary basis. Result: The dimension of vertical height, transverse diameter and anterior posterior depth in human by centimeters were near to that of the sheep. The mean vertical height of frontal sinus was 2.98 cm in human and the nearest vertical height of frontal sinus were 2.2 cms in sheep, followed by dog 1.4 cm and rabbit 0.18 cm. In addition, the maxillary sinus was 33.5 cm and the nearest animal was sheep 2.9 cm. Also, the sphenoidal sinus was 2.0 cm in human and 1.35 cms in sheep. Conclusion: The use of endoscopic sinus surgery can be practiced on animals. Sheep is the best laboratory animal for the training this technique of the endoscopic sinus surgery as we can explore the meatus, and maxillary sinus in great details than in dog and rabbit, but they have no ethmoid sinuses. Also the head of sheep is cheaper in price, easily available, than that of any other animal and with the same size of sinuses of that of human being.