Evaluation of serum kisspeptin role in male infertility
Ashraf T Abd Elmouttaleb, Doaa M Abd-Elatif, Eman M Rabie, Nashwa M Gouda, Osama A Hashem
Background: Kisspeptin are mainly expressed in discrete neuronal populations of the hypothalamus and have recently been emerged as an essential regulator of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) neurons and, hence, are potent stimulators of gonadotropin secretion.Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the level of serum kisspeptin concentration of azoospermic, oligospermic and normospermic men, and its role at reproductive axis and testicular function and the correlations between kisspeptin and (FSH, LH, Testosterone) hormones in these groups.Subjects and Methods: This study was be carried out on ninety men (60 infertile men and 30 fertile men as a control group), their ages from (20-60) years were included in this study. Subjects were divided into the following groups according to semen analysis. Group A: Includes 30 normospermic fertile men served as control group. Group B: Includes 30 cases diagnosed as oligospermic men by low sperm count less than 15 million cells/ml, sperm motility less than 40 % and abnormal forms more than 96% each subject provided two semen samples,one month apart. Group C: Includes 30 cases diagnosed as azoospermic men (functional azoospermia) by absence of spermatozoa in two to three ejaculate one month apart after three days of abstinence following high speed centrifugation and pellet analysis by light microscopy. Measurement of serum kisspeptin concentrations were estimated by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: A significant decrease in mean serum kisspeptin concentration (ng/ml) ± SEM for oligospermic and azoospermic groups was observed when compared with the mean serum kisspeptin concentration of the normal group (P value<0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between kisspeptin and sperm motility in the serum of the normal and oligospermic groups (r=0.6457, p=0.0001) (r=0.6050, p=0.0004) respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between kisspeptin and testosterone in the serum of the normal group, oligospermic group and azoospermic group (r=0.6309, p=0.0002) (r=0.5817, p=0.0007) and (r=0.6435, p=0.0001) respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between kisspeptin and FSH in the serum of the normal group and oligospermic groups (r=0.6388, p=0.0001) (r=0.6545, p<0.0001) respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between kisspeptin and LH in the serum of the normal group and oligospermic groups (r=0.6800, p<0.0001) (r=0.6016, p=0.0004) respectively. Conclusion: The serum kisspeptin levels are significantly higher in the fertile as compared to infertile males (oligospermic and azoospermic males). Kisspeptin can be used as a diagnostic marker for diagnosis of infertility in males and differentiation between normospermic, oligospermic and azoospermic males. This study provides a link between the kisspeptin levels and male reproductive axis depending on the fertility status of the subjects so it's considered as a key contributory factor in the control of testosterone, FSH and LH levels in males.