Nutritional status of gestational diabetes of resident’s women in eastern province of Saudi Arabia
Mai Abd-Alkhalik Gharib, Omar Ibrahim Abu Zaid, Norah Hassan Al-Qahtani, Nourah Al- Shammari, Fatemh Al-Jassem, Meaad Al-Khalifa, Zahra Al-Yousef
Background: Recently, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has become a growing health concern among Saudi pregnant women. The prevalence of GDM in KSA reaches 12.5 to 18.7% in 2013. Purpose: This study attempts to find out the nutritional status of GDM resident’s women in the eastern province in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on pregnant women. Total number (101) of participants were divided into two groups, the control group (CG) was included 49 normal pregnant women, and the experimental group includes 52 gestational diabetes women as gestational diabetes group (GDG). The inclusion criteria were residents' women in Eastern Province in Saudi Arabia, adult, and 2nd to 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The exclusion criteria were women who smoke, have chronic disease or other metabolic disorders, chronic type II diabetes, or taking any medications. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Food consumption pattern, food habits, nutritional intake were collected and analyzed for evaluation of the dietary intake of nutrients. Results: The results showed the increment of the maternal age, also the initial weight before pregnancy and BMI were higher in GDG than CG. Furthermore, the carbohydrate intake among GDG was increased than RDA by 27.96%, while CG have approximately ideal or recommended intake. The pattern intake from animal and vegetarian source of CG may be healthier than GDG. The daily protein intake was over the recommended intake for both groups. Total iron intake 27.33±3.73 mg/day had been approximately equal to the RDA for GDG, while CG deficit by -4.45±16.39. On the other hand, calcium intake (805.86±176.23 mg/day) was decreased aggressiveness by -9.41±1.62 when compared to AI. Dietary fiber intake may be equal for both groups.