Long considered an effective, and even necessary, means of socializing punishment has been revealed to be a predictor of a wide range of negative development outcomes. Punishment is associated with increased child aggression, antisocial behavior, lower intellectual achievement, poorer quality of parent–child relationships, mental health problems such as depression, and diminished moral internalization. The evidence about whether punishment results in short-term compliance is mixed, with some studies showing effectiveness in achieving this and others not. Short-term compliance can, however, be achieved as effectively without using punishment. Punishment has negative effects on child outcomes, especially if it is harsh, regardless of culture. When punishment use is normative in a culture, the effects are slightly less negative. Whether it is really doing more good than harm to the concerned individuals remain a topic of discussion and criticism in society today.