Effects of holy month of Ramadan (fasting) on performance of athlete and the recommendation for its modification
Rather Hilal Ahmad
Ramadan (/?ræm??d??n/; Arabic: ?????? Rama??n, also transliterated Ramazan, is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad (peace be upon Him) according to Islamic belief. This annual observance is regarded as one of the Five Pillars of Islam. The month lasts 29-30 days based on the visual sightings of the crescent moon, according to numerous biographical accounts compiled in the hadiths.Â rn
The word Ramadan comes from the Arabic root “rami?a or ar-rama?”, which means blazing heat or dryness. Fasting is Fardh (obligatory) for adult Muslims, except those who are suffering from an illness, travelling, are elderly, pregnant, breastfeeding, diabetic or going through menstrual bleeding. Fasting the month of Ramadan was made obligatory (w?jib) during the month of Sha'aban, in the second year after the Muslims migrated from Mecca to Medina. Fatwa (order) have been issued declaring that Muslims who live in regions with natural phenomenon such as the midnight sun or polar night should follow the timetable of Mecca. rnWhile fasting from dawn until sunset, Muslims refrain from consuming food, drinking liquids, smoking, and engaging in sexual relations with one's spouse. Muslims are also instructed to refrain from sinful behavior that may negate the reward of fasting, such as false speech (insulting, backbiting, cursing, lying, etc.) and fighting. Food and drink is served daily, before dawn and after sunset. Fasting for Muslims during Ramadan typically includes the increased offering of salat (prayers) and recitation of the Quran.Â
Muslim athletes who train and compete during the Holy month of Ramadan face challenges to perform at their optimum level with the restriction of food and fluid from sunrise to sundown, as well as alterations to sleep patterns, as whole mechanism changes abruptly. Some studies reported that the exercise performances of the athletes were adversely affected by Fasting. This review recommends the application of the FITT principles of exercise (i.e., frequency, intensity, time and type). An ideal model twice-a-day training session, which incorporate the different physical and behavioral aspects, are proposed for the athletes in this review in order to minimize the negative impact of Ramadan on their performances. This review will act as a useful guide for coaches and fasting athletes to carefully and strategically plan their training program to generate the most optimal level of competitive and training performance during Ramadan. This model will help them to most of extend to cope-up with harsh conditions of the Holy month of Ramadan.
Rather Hilal Ahmad. Effects of holy month of Ramadan (fasting) on performance of athlete and the recommendation for its modification. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, Volume 2, Issue 11, 2015, Pages 631-636