Following the reduction of the area of ??intervention of the CIDT in september 1998, and the rebellion in Côte d'Ivoire from 2002, the cotton sector is facing a crisis in the sub-prefecture of Yamoussoukro. The Regional Office of the CIDT of Bouaflé and the Zatta cotton ginning factory which covered this locality were forced to stop their activities. This situation has important socio-economic and land impacts. Thus, there is a reconversion of actors in the sector; through the exploitation of new speculations by ex-cotton producers, the use of former factory workers for agriculture and the marketing of food which was formerly intended for family consumption. At the land level, the lowlands which were once neglected are more and more coveted and there is a great deal of marketing of agricultural land. At the analysis, this crisis, which is harmful for cotton, is presented as a driver of the development of the food and market gardener in the locality. In addition, it has transformed the social organization and land management rules. From then on, it is interpreted as a factor of social change in the locality.