Bioremediation - A potential tool for management of aquatic pollution
Rajeev Ranjan, Siddhnath and M. Bavitha
Aquaculture aimed at high production through intense aquaculture practices which produce large amounts of organic wastes that often leads not only to the alteration in water quality but also to severe disease problems. Development of aquaculture sector can be achieved by adopting eco-friendly aquaculture practices by minimizing impact on the surrounding environment. Oxidation of these waste compounds depletes the level of dissolved oxygen in aquatic environment and encourages the formation of toxic metabolites such as ammonia (NH3), nitrite (NO2-) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Such conditions increase the mortality rates in aquaculture farming. Hence, NH4+ or NO3- removal processes (nitrification and denitrification) become essential for the pond water quality. This can be carried out by nitrifying or denitrifying bacteria such as Nitrobacter, Thiobacillus and Paracoccus. Thiobacillus also allows the removal of two contaminants (such as H2S and NO3-) in a single step, converting them into environmentally favorable compounds (SO42- and N2). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and oil spill are also play major role in aquatic pollution. Bioremediation are inexpensive, effective, environment friendly and safe technology that improving water quality and maintaining the health and stability of aquaculture systems offers innovative way to clean up hazards waste mineralized to carbon dioxide, maximising primary productivity, nitrification and denitrification. It is biodegradable as well as recalcitrant.